Antihypertensive Drugs: Types and side-effects

Antihypertensive drugs

Overview

Antihypertensive drugs are used to treat hypertension. It prevents the risk of high blood pressure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. There are many methods by which antihypertensives work in the body to reduce blood pressure. There are many antihypertensive drugs present but, only some medications are mostly suggested, effective, and widely used. The brief about these drugs are listed below.

Thiazide Diuretics

It helps in removing excess salt and water from tissue and blood in our body. The list of drugs that are used under this medications are:

  • Bumetanide
  • Furosemide
  • Epitizide
  • Bendroflumethiazide
  • Polythiazide
  • Chlorthalidone
  • Xipamide
  • Amiloride
  • Spironolactone
  • Ethacrynic acid
  • Torsemide
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Methyclothiazide
  • Indapamide
  • Metalozone
  • Clopamide
  • Triamterene
  • Eplerenone
Antihypertensive drugs

Calcium Channel Blockers

These are used to prevent calcium from entering artery and muscle cells. The drugs used for this process are as follows:

  • Amlodipine
  • Clevidipine
  • Isradipine
  • Ievamlodipine
  • Nifedipine
  • Nisoldipine
  • Diltiazem
  • Cilnidipine
  • Felodipine
  • Iercanidipine
  • Nicardipine
  • Nimodipine
  • Nitrendipine
  • Verapamil

ACE Inhibitors

ACE is used for angiotensin-converting enzyme. It is responsible for converting a potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin I, into angiotensin II. The drugs used for this process are as follows:

  • Captopril
  • Fosinopril
  • Moexipril
  • Quinapril
  • Trandolapril
  • Enalapril
  • Lisinopril
  • Perindopril
  • Ramipril
  • Benazepril

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists

They victimize the initiation of angiotensin receptors. The drugs used to accomplish this are as follows:

  • Azilsartan
  • Eprosartan
  • Iosartan
  • Telmisartan
  • Fimasartan
  • Candesartan
  • Irbesartan
  • Olmesartan
  • Valsartan
Antihypertensive drugs

Alpha Blockers

The alpha-blockers are also used to cure high blood pressure. The drugs used are listed below:

  • Doxazosin
  • Indoramin
  • Prazosin
  • Tolazoline
  • Phentolamine
  • Phenoxybenzamine
  • Terazosin

Side effects of Antihypertensive drugs

The side effects are directly related to the dosage. Ther have multiple side effects as listed below:

  • Sleep disturbance
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesaemia, Hypernatremia, Hyperlipidemia
  • Increased glucose levels
  • Heart failure
  • Risk of developing peripheral edema
  • Headaches
  • Lightheadedness
  • Flushing
  • Gingival hyperplasia
  • Constipation
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Hypotension
  • Azotemia
  • Renal failure
  • Diabetes
  • Bradycardia
  • Electrolyte imbalance
  • Dehydration
  • Deafness
  • Ototoxicity
  • Irregular menstrual periods
  • Palpitations
  • Immune phenomena
  • Irritation
  • Upper abdominal pain
Antihypertensive drugs

Precautions while taking Antihypertensive drugs

  • The drug choice should be made depending on the age of the person.
  • The dosage depends on the environment and previous medical conditions. 
  • Some drugs have severe side effects. Usage of such medications should be done under supervision. 
  • Not all drugs are for everyone. For example, pregnant women should avoid taking alpha-blockers. People with tremors should not use beta-blockers. People with asthma should avoid taking medicines that worsen the situation, or people with any kidney disease should avoid taking ACE inhibitors.  

Frequently asked questions

How do antihypertensive drugs work in the body?

They have their action on systematic vascular resistance. These drugs manufacture validation by restraining sympathetic adrenergic vascular tone. They also block the production of angiotensin II and its vascular receptors.

What are the benefits of antihypertensive drugs?

The antihypertensive treatment helps to prevent stroke, heart attack due to high blood pressure. They reduce the chances of heart disease by 25-40%. 

What is the safest hypertension medicine?

The above-listed drugs are all safe to use. Side effects prevail in case of default in dosage. Calcium chain blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, thiazide diuretics are all secure treatment options.

Which antihypertensive drug has been shown to reduce stroke?

In the study done to date, Nifedipine is most effective in reducing the risk of heart attack or stroke compared to other antihypertensive drugs. 

What is the first drug of choice for hypertension?

As confirmed by a majority of patients, the strongest and best choice of drug is thiazide diuretics.

How do I choose antihypertensive drugs?

The choice should be made after discussing the medical condition with a doctor. The dosage of the drug should be consumed as prescribed. To avoid the side effects, efficiency is needed to be maintained.

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