Angina Pectoris: 4 basic types

Angina Pectoris

Overview

Angina pectoris is a technical term also called stable angina. In this section, you will read about the basics of angina pectoris.

Angina pectoris is used for the discomfort of chest pain or coronary heart disease. It occurs due to a lack of blood flow through the arteries. The reason behind it might be a blocked or narrowed artery. 

The effects and symptoms for men and women are different. It is a common disease, but the source of occurrence is sometimes challenging to find. Approach your doctor instantly if you feel any chest pain or indigestion, as it is a life-threatening problem. 

Types of Angina Pectoris

There are different types of angina, as listed below.

Stable Angina

It can be caused due to stress or some heavy physical activity. It is the most common type of angina. It is not dangerous but can be a symptom of a severe heart attack or chest problem.

Unstable Angina

It occurs while you’re resting. It does not happen once but follows multiple comebacks. The pain could be intense, so consult your doctor as soon you feel the same. 

Microvascular Angina

This chest pain is due to the arteries’ improper functioning when they fail to supply blood. This is more common in women and can last up to 8-10 minutes. 

Prinzmetal’s Angina

It is also called variant angina. It is a rare kind of angina pectoris and occurs mainly at night during sleep when arteries abruptly narrow or tighten. It is excruciating and must be treated immediately. 

Angina Pectoris

The occurrence of Angina Pectoris

It occurs due to a lack of blood flow to the arteries. Due to this, muscles to the heart are unable to receive the blood they require and thus cause pain. This can occur while doing any physical activity or being sentimentally high. 

Narrowing of arteries occurs while climbing or doing any physical activity when you need more blood, but the artery could not supply it. 

angina pctoris

Symptoms of Angina Pectoris

  • Chest pain
  • Squeezing
  • Fullness
  • Heartburn
  • Inflammation
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pain in arms, jaw, shoulder, neck, or back
  • Aching and burning
  • Feeling pressure
  • Vomiting
  • Pain in breastbone
  • Gas
  • Upset stomach
  • Choking sensation
  • Pain due to eating or cold
  • Emotional stress
angina pectoris

Risk factors of Angina Pectoris

Your lifestyle is one of the main reasons for angina. It can be prevented easily. The risk factors involve the following:

  • Old age
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Stress
  • Consumption of tobacco
  • Family history of the disease
  • High cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Not doing required physical activity

Diagnosis of Angina Pectoris

After discussing the family history of diseases ad based on the symptoms, the doctor may suggest some tests as listed below:

Electrocardiogram: It is used to check various heart conditions and record signals from the heart. It measures heart rhythm and electrical activity. 

Stress test: It observes the heart’s condition while doing any exercise. 

Blood tests: Blood test gives the detailed report of complete blood count, metabolism, protein, troponins, etc. it will then help release an unwanted substance that was damaging the blood flow. 

Imaging test: X-rays give images of the lungs. This helps analyze the heart’s situation, and the problem can be spotted easily through echocardiograms, CT, and MRI scans

Cardiac catheterization: In this doctor places a tube, thin and long, inside the artery. This is done to check the blood flow to the heart. 

Coronary angiography: In this, the image of blood vessels is obtained using dye. The doctor will vaccinate dye into blood vessels; this dye creates images under the X-ray. 

Treatment of Angina Pectoris

The treatment will entirely depend on the report of diagnosis. Mild angina can be cured with a change in lifestyle and medication. The other methods are listed below:

Medications

The medicines prescribed in most cases are as follows:

  • Nitrates
  • Calcium channel blockers
  • Beta-blockers
  • Antiplatelet medications
  • Blood thinners
  • Statins 

Cardiac procedures

the main thing to do is open the blocked arteries with surgery or any other method. 

Angioplasty: it is also called stenting. This process requires 22 hours-long surgery, and you might be asked to stay in the hospital overnight. The surgery involves opening up the blocked passageway. Stents are used to prevent the arteries from getting blocked. 

Bypass surgery: this is a long process, and you will be asked to stay in the hospital for around a week. In this, the arteries are being exchanges or replaced from another part of the body. 

Lifestyle and diet

Healthy eating will keep the heart and arteries strong. Try avoiding things that trigger angina. 

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